White Thunder

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Clarence White Thunder (Big Feather) Student File

Student file of Clarence White Thunder (Big Feather), a member of the Sioux Nation, who entered the school on November 14, 1883 and ultimately departed on April 27, 1897. The student did not attend the school continuously, but left and reentered. The file contains student information cards,...

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Clarence White Thunder Student Information Card

Student information card of Clarence White Thunder, a member of the Sioux Nation, who entered the school on November 14, 1883 and departed on April 27, 1897. The file indicates that Thunder graduated in 1897, married Mary McCloskey, and was living in Cut Meat, South Dakota in 1914.

Note:...

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Eadle Keahtah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 2)
April 1880

Page one opened with a teacher identified as A.J.S. (Alfred J. Standing) reminiscing about his time teaching Native Americans before he came to Carlisle. Also on the page was an article on the civilization of the Indians, comparing it to the conquests of the Roman Empire and its assimilation of...

Repository: Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections
Ernest (Knocks Off) Student Information Card

Student information card of Ernest (Knocks Off), a member of the Sioux Nation, who entered the school on October 6, 1879 and died on December 14, 1880. Ernest was buried in the cemetery on the school grounds.

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Ernest Student Information Card

Student information card of Ernest, a member of the Sioux Nation, who entered the school on October 6, 1879 and died on December 14, 1880 while attending the school. He was buried in the cemetery on the school grounds.

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Five Sioux chiefs with two interpreters, c.1880

Portrait of five Sioux chiefs posed with two white interpreters on the steps of the bandstand on the school grounds. The chiefs are Black Crow, Two Strike, White Thunder, Spotted Tail, and Iron Wing. The interpreters are Louis Robideau and Charles Tackett. 

Note: The Cumberland County...

Format: Photographic Print, B&W
Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Rose White Thunder (Red Girl) Student Information Card

Student information card of Rose (here Rosy) White Thunder (Red Girl), a member of the Sioux Nation, who entered the school on November 14, 1883 and departed on June 14, 1887.

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
White Thunder's Desire to Marry his Sister-In-Law, a Student at the School
June 21, 1880

Richard Henry Pratt informs the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs that White Thunder would like his sister-in-law as his second wife, but she is not interested. She is currently a student at the Carlisle Indian School, but there are reports of her mother dying. Before she leaves the school...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Return of Chief Spotted Tail's Children and Grandchildren
June 23, 1880

Richard Henry Pratt informs Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs E. J. Brooks that the party has left, and Spotted Tail took his children and grandchildren - who were all students at the Carlisle Indian School - home.

Note: This item was copied from U.S. National Archives microfilm reels...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Potentially Terminal Illness of Ernest (Knocks Off)
December 6, 1880

Richard Henry Pratt informs the Commissioner of Indian Affairs that Chief White Thunder's son, Ernest, is very sick and may die. Pratt believes that it's "entirely his fault" and that he "wants to die."

Note: This item was copied from U.S. National Archives microfilm reels (M234), which...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Report on Deaths of Maud (Little Girl) and Ernest (Knocks Off)
December 14, 1880

Physician Charles H. Hepburn provides a report on the deaths of two Rosebud Sioux students: Maud and Ernest. Maud died of multiple lung issues on December 13, 1880 with Ernest dying of diphtheria on December 14, 1880. Richard Henry Pratt forwards Hepburn's report to the Commissioner of Indian...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Request to Return the Bodies of Ernest White Thunder and Maud Swift Bear
December 27, 1880

The parents of Ernest White Thunder and Maud Swift Bear request that their bodies be returned to them in order to have them buried near their homes. They note that while Richard Henry Pratt sent them frequent letters they were not aware that their children were near death and are now unable to...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Proposal to Send Industrial Articles to Rosebud and Pine Ridge Agencies
January 21, 1881

Richard Henry Pratt notes that when he spoke to American Horse and other Sioux Chiefs in 1880 as they returned home they were promised a light wagon produced at Carlisle. According to Pratt sending the wagons along with some tinware would be a good method to show the work being done by the...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Letters Sent to Pratt from the Rosebud Agency Regarding Return of Children
May 23 - June 8, 1881

Richard Henry Pratt forwards to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs two letters he received from the Rosebud Agency. One concerns the deaths of Rosebud students while at Carlisle and the desire of the Rosebud Sioux Chiefs to educate their children closer to home. The second from Black Crow...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Sioux Chiefs Protest Deaths of their Children and Ask for Local School
May 23, 1881

A Council of Sioux Chiefs including Spotted Tail, Two Strike, White Thunder, and Swift Bear from the Rosebud Agency writes to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to protest the deaths of their children at Carlisle and asks for a local school in order to educate their children along with teachers...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Sioux Chiefs Protest Deaths of their Children and Ask President Garfield for Local School
May 23, 1881

A Council of Sioux Chiefs including Spotted Tail, Two Strike, White Thunder, and Swift Bear from the Rosebud Agency writes to President James A. Garfield to protest the deaths of their children at Carlisle and asks for a local school in order to educate their children along with teachers. U.S....

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Sioux Chiefs Protest Deaths of their Children to Interior and Ask for Local School
May 23, 1881

A Council of Sioux Chiefs including Spotted Tail, Two Strike, White Thunder, and Swift Bear from the Rosebud Agency writes to the Secretary of the Interior to protest the deaths of their children at Carlisle and asks for a local school in order to educate their children along with teachers. U.S...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Requests Authority to Send James Home
September 1, 1881

Richard Henry Pratt seeks authority to send James, a member of the Sioux Nation, back to his home.

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Request to Repatriate of Frank Cushing's Body to Zuni
September 30 - October 18, 1881

Richard Henry Pratt forwards a letter that was originally sent to Benjamin M. Thomas, U.S. Indian Agent at the Pueblo Agency, from S. A. Bentley a teacher in the Indian Service. Bentley's letter concerns the wishes of Frank Cushing's parents to have his body repatriated to Zuni. Pratt comments...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Difficulties in Securing Children at the Rosebud Agency
August 11, 1883 - November 22, 1883

Richard Henry Pratt documents his trip to the Rosebud Agency where he attempted to secure 90 students for the Carlisle Indian School. He notes that after an initial meeting where this was received with much enthusiasm he failed to gather the allotted students due to the work of the Catholic...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Proposal to Supply Wagons to Sioux Chiefs
February 18, 1884

Richard Henry Pratt writes to the Secretary of the Interior regarding a proposal to supply four wagons to Sioux Chiefs rather than having them travel East.

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
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