Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 8)

Carlisle Barracks, PA
December 1880
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Page one started with an explanation for why boarding schools are necessary to successfully educate Indian children. It was explained that day school simply “do not withdraw the pupils from the influences of their home surroundings in such a manner us to facilitate a change in their habits of daily life.” Page two had a piece on the “Oklahoma Raiders,” a group of Indians resisting White assimilation.

Page three had the Home Items list, which included students crafting cups and stands, school renovations, and Ponca Chiefs visiting Washington. Funds were also raised to build a gymnasium. Page three also mentioned three student deaths, Ernest, Chief White Thunder’s son, and Maud (Little Girl), daughter of Chief Swift Bear, both Sioux, died, Earnest of an unknown disease and Maud of pneumonia. Dennis, son of Blue Tomahawk also died, of Typhoid Pneumonia. Page four had worries for the Crow, who had not been civilized at all and whose main food source, Buffalo, will most likely die out because of how quickly white men are killing them for their skin.

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Cumberland County Historical Society