Black Coal

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Arapaho Children to be Sent to Carlisle
January 19, 1881

E. Ballon writes to the E. M. Marble, the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs that he was informed of the decision to enroll Arapaho students at Carlisle. He notes that Black Coal was excited at this response and immediately went to gather pupils to send to Carlisle in order to send them by...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Black Coal, c.1879

Photograph of a studio portrait of Black Coal, an Arapaho chief. 

J.N. Choate took this photograph of the original photograph, but there is no information about the photographer of the original image.

Format: Glass Plate Negative, Photograph, Reproduction
Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Black Coal, c.1885

Studio portrait of a Native American man. A later caption identifies him as "Black Coal, Arapaho Chief." 

Format: Photographic Print, B&W
Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Five Arapaho chiefs, c.1885

Studio portrait of five Arapho chiefs with their interpeter. 

Based on comparison with other photographs, the Cumberland County Historical Society has identifeid these chiefs as: Iron Chief (back row left), Sharp Nose (back row right), Black Coal (front row center), and Little Wolf (front...

Format: Photographic Print, B&W
Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Proceedings of the Arapaho Council of Chiefs
February 28, 1881

James Patten, a former U.S. Indian Agent, records the Arapaho Council of Chiefs meeting on the occasion of them sending their children to the Carlisle School. Chief Sharp Nose noted that he looked forward to be granted permission to visit his son at Carlisle a sentiment echoed by Chief Little...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Proposal to Bring Northern Arapaho Chiefs to Carlisle
November 24, 1881

Charles Hatton, U.S. Indian Agent for the Northern Arapaho Agency, seeks authority to bring five Northern Arapaho Chiefs to Carlisle and Washington D.C. to visit their children. The Chiefs were promised when they sent their children that they would be allowed to visit and are seeking to have...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Summer B. Coal Student File

Student file of Summer B. Coal, a member of the Arapahoe Nation, who entered the school on March 11, 1881 and departed on June 17, 1884. The file contains a student information card and a report after leaving that indicates Coal was living in Fort Washakie, Wyoming in 1910.

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Summer B. Coal Student Information Card

Student information card of Summer B. Coal, a member of the Arapaho Nation, who entered the school on March 11, 1881 and departed on June 17, 1884.

Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
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