Assimilation of Native Americans

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Letter from Richard H. Pratt to Cornelius R. Agnew, January 2, 1886

Superintendent Richard Henry Pratt writes to Doctor Cornelius Rea Agnew in response to a proposed plan to segregate the students after they left the school.  He states that the students are fully capable of becoming a part of American life and appeared wary of what he perceives as attempts to...

Format: Letters/Correspondence
Repository: Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections
Inspection Report of J. H. Dortch for May 1915

These materials include an inspection report of J. H. Dortch for his visit to the Carlisle Indian School. His report includes discussions of new staff, the school's physical plant and curriculum, and continued disciplinary changes being enacted under Superintendent Oscar Hiram Lipps.

Format: Reports
Repository: National Archives and Records Administration
Eadle Keahtah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 2)
April 1880

Page one opened with a teacher reminiscing on his Time teaching in Carlisle. Also on the page was an article on the civilization of the Indians, comparing it to the conquests of Rome and their assimilation of less educated people. Page two opens with an article on older student, above age...

Repository: Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections
School News (Vol. 1, No. 1)
June 1880

The June edition opened with a short narrative describing a field trip to an iron forge near Pine Grove, followed by a picnic at the Grove with the students, teachers and visiting Chiefs, titled “The Pine Grove Picnic”. The was followed by “An Indian Boys Camp Life,” a short piece describing how...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 4)
July 1880

Page one had an article on the benefits all children of the Sioux Nation receive from the agency, and how adult should have the opportunity to learn English as well. There was statistics on the number of children attending, and the ratio of boys to girls. Page two had a piece about the student’s...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 6)
September 1880

Page one opened with the discovery of a Cherokee tribe in the mountains of South Carolina and how they begged for teaches when the white travelers passed through their village. The Indian bow and white man musket were also compared on page one, with the bow being determined to be the superior...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
School News (Vol. 1, No. 5)
October 1880

The fifth issue opens with Roman Nose describing his trip back to Indian Territory and his reunion with his family. While there he expresses his enjoyment of the school and the benefits of education, eventually convincing the chiefs to sends twenty-one Cheyenne children and Ten Arapahoe children...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
School News (Vol. 1, No. 6)
November 1880

The first page has a short narrative from Joshua Given (Kiowa) on how he went from living in Indian Territory to studying at Carlisle and a brief paragraph from H.C. Roman Nose on how well and enthusiastically the students are learning. The editorial was about how smart Indians started to learn...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
School News (Vol. 1, No. 7)
December 1880

Issue Seven opens with Roman Nose explaining how he came to Carlisle after being held captive in St. Augustine for three years. He explains his time there was good because of the kindness of Capt. Pratt. After the editorial about the benefits of speaking English, there was a small letter from a...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 8)
January 1881

Page one started with an explanation for why boarding schools are necessary to successfully educate Indian children. It was explained that day school simply “do not withdraw the pupils from the influences of their home surroundings in such a manner us to facilitate a change in their habits of...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 1, No. 8)
January 1881

Issue Eight opens with a continuation of Henry C. Roman Nose’s journey from St. Augustine, to New York city and eventually Tarrytown, New York. The next page was an editorial on the importance of Hard Work, and how Indians should strive to work hard like White men do, along with a series of...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 1, No. 9)
February 1881

Issue nine, continues Roman Nose’s story, showing him attending Hampton School and eventually traveling to Lee, Ma. This issue’s editorial featured a piece on the hopes that the new U.S. President Garfield will put all Indian Children in School. On the same page Robert W. Stewart (Creek) wrote...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 9)
March 1881

Page one had a list of requests to the United States President from W. E. Dodge, Howard Crosby, John Hall, S. M. Moore, W m. C. Gray, S. It. Riggs, and T. M. Sinclair, making several requests, such as asking for titles to their land and for Indians to have more defined protection under the Law....

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 1, No. 11)
April 1881

The opening article was written by Michael Burns (Apache), and focused on “The Indian Question.” In it he explains how many Indians falsely believe that white men are wiser simply because they are born white, and argues that their wisdom comes not from their skin color, but from more easily...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 1, No. 12)
May 1881

Number 12. Opened with a letter from Charles Kauboodle (Kiowa) to his cousin Laura, talking about what they’ve learned in school, their family, and wishing her a quick recovery from the sickness she has. Jessa Bent also had a few sentences on the desert published at the bottom of the page. The...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 11)
June 1881

Page one opened with the methods and various uses of ground corn, from sweetening water, to making traveling bread. There was also a letter from Jno D. Miles, and another from Minerva Cheyenne. One article on creating competition between the Arapahoe and Cheyenne. Page two opened with the story...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 2, No. 1)
June 1881

Page one opens with a letter from Lucius Aitson (Kiowa) to his father describing an illness he had that left him bed ridden for two weeks and how fond her is of English. Also on this page is a short bit from Nellie Robertson (Sioux) about the story of Moses. The next page had an article titled “...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 1, No. 12)
July 1881

Page one opened with a piece titled “The Future of the Red Indian” which took up the entire page and was about how the American Gov’t can protect Indian Tribes and why it is needed. The second page had the report on the First Annual Examination of the Carlisle School. Over all the report was...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 2, No. 1)
August 1881

Page one opened with Lapi Oaye talking about the school system in America and how it is beneficial to Indian and while children alike. Page two had a bit on the humor of incorrectly spelled names, followed by an Article written by E.G.P. on increasing the time Indians spend in both office and...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 2, No. 2)
September 1881

Page one opened with a poem by E.G.P. and the story of the Great Turtle, which was based on the arrival of a Spanish Ship. There was also a piece on the trouble that Billy Cornipachio faced, which included the opposition of his people to his education. Page two had a piece about visiting chiefs...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 2, No. 4)
September 1881

The first page is has a small narrative from Nellie Carey (Apache) on her visit to the Navajoes with her white family, She describes the Navajoes as dirty, explaining how they don’t keep their tents clean. There was also a letter from Davis Cheyenne (Cheyenne) to Captain Pratt about his time in...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 2, No. 3)
October 1881

Page one opens with the Annual Report, followed by an article on School Room Work, which discussed learning English, musical instruction, and classroom examinations. Page two had “Wise Words for the Indians” by the President Garfield of Hampton Institute, Va. The main premise being that Labor...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 2, No. 5)
October 1881

The first page has an article on Indian children learning to take care of themselves when their grown, like the white people do. It also had mentions of the benefits of forgetting Indian language. Julia Bent (Cheyenne) also wrote about the Chapel and her interactions Captain Pratt, and Miss Hyde...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
Eadle Keatah Toh (Vol. 2, No. 4)
November 1881

Page one opens with a discussion on the various types of Indian education, from day and boarding schools in Indian Territory to Boarding schools like Carlisle in the east. It also talked about the construction of new buildings on campus. Page two had more statistics on other Indian Schools. Page...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society
The School News (Vol. 2, No. 6)
November 1881

The first page talked about the cost of educating an Indian vs the cost of killing one to support the Indian Schools. The article was titled “The Amount it Takes to Kill One Indian Would Establish Many School Like Carlisle and Hampton” by Michael Burns (Apache). The second page has an article...

Repository: Cumberland County Historical Society

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